Land surface temperature (LST) is a key variable in understanding Earth’s climate system, and it is an important indicator of environmental changes. It is a measure of the radiative skin temperature of the land surface [1,2].

Copernicus, the European Union’s flagship Earth observation program, provides LST data that is derived from satellite observations. The LST data is used to monitor changes in land use, land cover, and urbanisation, and to evaluate the impact of human activities on the environment. The Copernicus LST data can also be used to support various applications, including weather forecasting, disaster management, agriculture, and water resource management. 

The Copernicus LST datasets are obtained from a constellation of geostationary (an orbit with period equal to Earth’s rotational period) satellites:

  • Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) 0°, covering Europe and Africa
  • Meteosat Second Generation Indian Ocean Data Coverage (IODC) covering the Middle East
  • Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES East), covering North and South America
  • Himawari, covering eastern Asia and Oceania
Figure 1. Coverage of the Land Surface Temperature (Ref:

Focusing on agriculture, LST data can be beneficial for vineyard monitoring for several reasons. Firstly, vine growth and grape production are directly influenced by temperature, and LST can provide insights into temperature variations across vineyards. LST data can help vineyard managers to monitor microclimates of vineyards, which can impact grape quality and yield. This information can help managers to optimise nutrient application, and other vineyard management practices.

Secondly, LST can also be used to identify potential stress factors affecting vine growth, such as water stress or disease. By monitoring LST changes over time, vineyard managers can detect anomalies in temperature patterns, which may indicate areas of the vineyard that require further attention.

Lastly, LST data can be used to assess the impact of weather events, such as heatwaves or frost, on vineyards. This information can be used to optimise harvest times and protect grape crops from potential damage.

Overall, the use of LST data for vineyard monitoring can help improve grape quality and yield, optimise vineyard management practices, and mitigate the impact of environmental stress factors on grape production. Copernicus LST data is an essential tool for studying the Earth’s surface temperature and its changes over time.

Saturnalia has ingested – and will continue to do so – all the Copernicus LST archive. This means that temperatures data at global scale are made available via API and iframe. An example of daily temperatures follows.

Figure 2. Example of daily temperatures at coordinates (45.18, 9.17), displayed using the Saturnalia iframe integration.

If you want to benefit from using these and all the Saturnalia data, contact us!

[1] Freitas, S. C. ; Trigo, I. ; Macedo, J. ; Barroso, C. ; Silva, R. ; Perdigao, R. Land Surface Temperature from multiple geostationary satellites. International Journal of Remote Sensing 2013, Vol 34, 3051-3068.
[2] Martins, J. P. ; Trigo, I. F. ; Lacaze, R. ; S.C., F. ; Gomes, S. M. The Hourly Land Surface Temperature from the Copernicus Global Land Service – Part1: the updated algorithm with inclusion of vegetation and snow cover dynamics, and of Indian Ocean Data Coverage mission. In preparation. 2023.

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Land Surface Temperature: leveraging satellites for temperatures at global scale